Developing the Forearms

Developing the Forearms

By George F. Jowett

The development of the forearms is a problem to thousand of body builders, but the author, who is famed for the size and strength of his powerful arms, offers valuable help in this fine article. He sets you right on many questions, and explains why certain beliefs are mere fallacies. With usual thoroughness, he picks apart the entire muscular scheme of the forearm in such a manner you can visualize the entire-plan unfold before- your eyes. He presents practical facts gleaned from many years of personal experience, and from teachings others. It will help you immensely to build your forearms as you want them.

Bodybuilder Joe Thaler
Joe Thaler of New York, winner of the best back contest in "Mr. America 1940", at present in the US Army. This photo shows up his wonderful development and powerful arms. Another tribute to physical culture. Photo by Earle Forbes.

It is commonly said that the calves and the forearms are the two muscular parts of the body that are the most difficult to develop. It is quite true that many do find them very stubborn to respond to an appreciable increase in growth, but the fact remains that the forearms and calves are composed of the same type of muscles as the rest of the body. It is not any particular peculiarity in the muscular construction of these parts that makes development difficult as much as the fact that these two parts are functioning more vigorously daily, which causes a greater density of tissue that makes the necessary breaking down process of the old tissue a more serious task. This must be done first before growth can take place.

Some choose to term this difficulty a natural condition. Possibly it is; nevertheless, It does not alter the natural order of tissue replacement. My experience gained from observation is that most body builders expect the forearms to respond as readily as other parts, and when they do not they become disgusted and say it just cannot be done for one of many reasons — the most common ‘being, that they have small wrists.

In years past, this old alibi has been drummed into the body builder. To my mind, the alibi just a satisfactory excuse for the incompetent instructor and the indifferent body builder. Naturally all are not indifferent. Many try hard, which puts the burden for non-success where it belongs — upon the instructor.

developing forearms in bodybuilding
Assume the position as shown with the dumbell held at the exact angle. Do not allow the elbow to travel back, though It Is permissible to hug the body with the upper arm. The object is to describe a wide circle by moving the forearms at the elbow, and at the same time rotate the hand on the wrist to the limit. Do not confuse this movement with the idea that all you do is hold the arm rigid and twist the bell around. This is a common error in which the weight of the bell swings the hand, and have no benefit. Do not use too much weight ten to fifteen lbs. is enough to start, and perform 9 to 18 times.

In my study of various body building courses. It is quite noticeable how are deficient in supplying the pupil with the proper explanation, construction and function, treatise and exercise for the forearms.

The small-boned wrist theory always makes me ask the question, “What is a small wrist?” I never get an answer. The defect, if it is one, is more assumed than is actual. During many years as an instructor. I have had the opportunity to observe numerous body builders. Many were famous for their arm strength, and many others with fine arm development could have been equally famous if their inclinations had been toward professional performance or amateur competition. Many of these specimens did not have large bony wrists; very few did. To the average body builder, some of these wrists would have appeared large, and the tape would have justified the fact — but it rarely ever was all bone girth. What was most apparent was the strong mass of muscle and sinew formed around the wrist. As an example, let me quote myself. My wrist measures around 9 ½ inches. Yet, those who can go back far enough to remember me in my earlier days when I was only a middleweight, growing into a heavyweight, will recall that my wrist measurement was given a-round 7 ¼ to 7 ½ inches. As far as years ago, I had then reached manhood’s estate and the age when bones had reached the limit of natural growth in my particular case. Now, is it foolish to assume that the additional two inches gained on my wrist girth could be pure bone? Of course not! My Forearms increased with any other development that transformed me into a heavyweight, and with the increase of forearm size went wrist size. Of course many heavyweights never secured the sized arms and wrists that I and others got, but that was simply because they did not apply themselves as I and others had done.

At the same time, it must always be understood, as explained in previous articles, that a man who is naturally a lightweight cannot expect to obtain the wrist and forearm size of the heavyweight. Yet, there are many cases where men who were to all appearances naturally Inclined to be of an average bodyweight, but who became heavyweights. Like myself, they were not content to belong to the average bodyweight class, no matter how fine their development, nor how great their strength was at the weight, they persevered and so built their body until they finally became heavyweights. Usually, these men can be identified by their bony structure, that is if you observe closely enough. As an example, many remark about my heavy wrist formation, but by squeezing the wrist at the sides, the muscular bulk is forced away and shows clearly the natural bone size, which is not much different than it was when I was a middleweight. In other words, you too, can build your forearms to greater size if you will only be persistent enough. Forget the small-boned wrist idea. Muscle is muscle, and the right type of exercise will break down any stubborn tissue and allow greater growth in replacement.

exercise to develop forearms muscles
From the bang position as shown by the dotted line, the back of the hand faces directly front. As you start to raise the kettlebell into the second position shown, first bend the hand back on the wrist as much as possible. Do not allow the elbow to travel backward, and do not press the arm to the side of the body. Raise the arm slowly until it is just past the right angle line with the body. Do not go beyond this line. Slowly return to position and repeat 6 to 12 times with 20 or 25 lbs. You can practice each arm singly, or both together, or in alternate fashion.

Many instructors lacking sufficient information on forearm development advise that the constant gripping, and lifting of dumbbells of barbells during exercise provides sufficient exercise for the forearms. That is not so, because in those same movements, yon are only using the arms in the manner in which they are most accustomed. The -muscles being fully used to those movements, even though they may be more vigorous movements, will no more respond to growth than will pick and showel work increase the arms of the laborer.

Like developing any other part of the body, you must understand the construction and function of the muscles. The forearm muscles, due to the natural crossing action of the radial and ulna bones of the forearms, are arranged to provide more diversified action.

The forearm muscles are capable of four movements — supination — pronation — flexion and extension. This being the case, the mere gripping and bending the arm, lifting to the shoulder, is only one part of their fourfold action. Exercise must be employed that works the muscles from every line of their natural angle. The swift movement of the arms in weight lifting is too quick to classify the action as muscle building exercise. In a lift, there is only the momentary grip, and pull up, that hurls the weight to the shoulders, then the muscles more or less relax in order for the arms to bend, and get under the weight. The forearms are little used in the overhead heave, except at the conclusion of the lift when the supinator longus of the forearm helps to support the triceps of the upper arm in locking the arm at the elbow. To give muscles benefit, the action must be an exercise movement that thoroughtfy stimulates action throughout all the issues, therefore, the movement must be reasonably slow and complete. Particularly Is this true with muscles that are more than ordinary dense In their tissue structure, otherwise, the breaking down of old issue will not be sufficient.

The forearms are divided into a very complex arrangement of nineteen muscles. These muscles are slender-bellied, and with very long tendons. The muscles proper, on the front of the forearm, extend about three-quarters of the way down to the wrist, the rest of the connection to the hand is tendon. Those on the back of the forearm are longer, but these also have long tendons as an examination of the anatomical illustrations of the forearms accompanying this article show.

The origin of most of these muscles are inserted on the bone of the upperarm to become finally attached onto the wrist and hand.

In the last issue, explaining the biceps of the arm, I showed how the biceps were attached upon the bones of the forearm, and as the forearm muscles originate on the bone of the upper arm, you can better understand now why the arm is so powerful in bending the forearm on the upper arm. Everything muscular Is arranged this way. Those who are seeking to increase the depth of the upper arm against the elbow fold can realize that forearm development is also a necessary part of the plan to create this desirable powerful formation.

exercise for forearms muscles
This is a good exercise if you put plenty of effort behind it. You must not use too much weight. If you do, the upper arm tires from supporting the weight in the stationary position before the forearm muscles get the required workout. Hold the elbow high and level with the band. Hold the bell endways with the floor. From this position bend the hand on the wrist toward the body, then bend the hand backward on the wrist. Grip the bell tightly, and force the hand movements on the wrist to the limit, until you see the bulge on the front of the arm, and then bulge on top of the arm at the elbow. Use 10 to 15 lbs. and perform 12 to 14 movements with each arm.

Of the nineteen muscles in the forearm, four are concerned with pronation and supination, nine with the thumb, and six with the wrist, and they all have capable extension and flexion. When you hold the arm with the back of the hand up, that is the prone position, the reverse is the supine. This action aided by the crossing of the bones, permit the hand to rotate on the wrist 180 degrees, or a half circle. The rotation of the hand is caused by the crossing of the forearm bones, and not by the wrist alone. These bones control the wrist movement, therefore, you must always bear in mind that it is the forearm that involves the movements of the wrist and hand. This being a fact, all hand and wrist movements in turn involve the forearm muscles, and the hand and wrist is the angle from which we must begin in order to develop the muscles. The only thing left is to know in which direction the hand and wrist should be bent in order to get at all of the muscles. These movements comprise the exercises necessary for the purpose.

You must always remember that the actual functions of these muscles are short. The length of their pull is controlled by the limation of the hand bending on the wrist. Therefore, the true exercise operation must be gauged from the straight arm position, and bending the hand on the wrist in the varied exercise position. From this line of action, only light weights should be used, otherwise the swing of a heavy weight is going to create a momentum which will deprive the muscles of a steady complete movement.

There are exercises that are very influential for the forearm muscles that require a bent arm. These efforts are more sustained muscular contraction. By that I mean, after the muscle has become contracted from a movement, the bent arm will sustain the final contraction in a greater degree. Then there are movements of this nature which are necessary because of the supinator longus reaching high onto the upper arm bone, co-ordinates with the triceps. We must also bear in mind what I told you in last month’s issue how the biceps have a functioning relationship with the forearm. With these facts in mind you will understand the reason for light weights with certain exercises, and heavier weights in other exercises. The latter are employed where the muscles of the upper arm coordinate with the lower arm. In other words, you must know the how, when and where to employ heavy and light weight.

The forearm muscles having only an actual short range of contraction will permit, in many cases, a very much increased poundage per exercise, and what is also very important, one can exercise the muscles of the lower arm without any danger of organic reaction. The reason for this is because the forearm muscles are not directly associated with the organs. They also act more independently of other groups which enable their physical capabilities to be more safely and definitely controlled.

The thumb is an important consideration, too, in forearm development. While nine forearm muscles are concerned with thumb action, there are three that are directly associated with it—a short, and a long extensor, and the long abductor. The thumb, like the little finger has more freedom than the other fingers. While the little finger is much weaker than the thumb yet It has three direct muscles connections,—abductor, flexor and opponens.

bodybuilding workout for forearms
Place kettlebell on floor between feet. Use weight of 25 to 30 lbs. Keep the elbow free of body as shown, but you must make elbow travel toward the body as exercise is performed. Keep upper arm always in position shown. Bend forearm only and raise bell as high as is shown, with the hand bent forward on wrist so that arm resembles gooseneck formation. Do not straighten the body. Raise bell op and down from 9 to 18 times. This exercise develops strongly the frontal arm muscles.

The little finger does not act as independent of the other fingers as does the thumb, which means, while you can grip collectively with all fingers the thumb is not necessarily acting, so you should remember to grip strongly with the thumb when holding a weight in the hand during exercise.

The common extensor of the forearm branches into four sections, to be attached onto each finger. The palmaris longus extends from the bone of the upper arm down the forearm ending into a broad sheet of tissue that forms the palm of the hand. Other hand muscles of fleshy bulk form on the top of the fascia. On the back of the hand there are no fleshy, muscles, just a series of tendons. Of course there is a series of superficial muscles forming under the forearm surface muscles which you are more familiar with. These are equally stimulated by the exercises given

The one muscle one should be careful with, particularly weight lifters, is the supinator longus, that runs high on the upper arm bone and supports the triceps. Many lifters strain this muscle, which pains slightly and makes the arm weak in certain arm movements. This is because this particular muscle is not carefully developed strongly enough to co-operate with the effort the triceps demand. There is a little triangle shaped muscle at the upper part of the forearm named the Anconeus that also supports the triceps. This muscle is considered an elongation of the triceps by anatomists, and is developed in unison with the supinator longus.

If you are keen to develop the forearm muscles, it will pay you to read over the explanation given herein several times, so everything is properly grasped in your mind. After all, the forearm is a complex arrangement of muscles, and while I have tried to be brief, and yet cover all the important features necessary to know, study will clarify the subject .more to you. I have not covered all of the muscles separately, simply because so many of them operate will each other in groups that deal with the four explained movements of the forearm muscles.

The exercises submitted for your benefit within this article should be practiced as shown and described. Where a dumbell is advocated, use it. Where a kettle bell is advised use it, also where a solid dumbbell is advised gripped in the hand by the end, use it that way. In this last named, where one holds the dumbbell toy the end and describes a circle with the other end, moving the hand on the wrist, you will probably recognize an old exercise. I have noticed of the late that many have deviated from this exercise principle, using a dumbbell gripped by the bar. This is wrong in two ways. It induces one to use too much weight. The detriment of this is that once the exercise motion is set up a momentum is gathered by the heavy bell. This causes the bell to swing as the hand rotates and deprives the muscles involved of the progressive resistance necessary for development. Moreover, by holding the bell by the end, you obtain full grip of the thumb and little finger, as well as the other fingers If you grip a bell by the bar you are deprived of thumb, and little ‘finger benefit. The thumb is most important. Holding the bell by its end compels you to perform the exercise correctly, and docs the work it is ordained for.

bodybuidling exercise for forearms muscles
This exercise has been advocated from the standing position, but is not as effective as the table position because the standing position allows the elbow to travel back. The table position compels true forearms movement. Use a solid 10-lb. dumbell for thumb and little finger action, as well as entire forearm action. Describe a complete circle with free end of bell 18 times.

There is not so much difference in muscular construction in the forearm as often met with in other muscles, as explained in other ‘previous articles. The forearm size is less deceiving than other muscular bulk. There is less chance for coarse tissue because the forearms are actively employed daily. You can readily tell the difference between a true strong forearm, and a weak one. The muscles stand out in stronger relief, or else the fore-arm is fat. There is the only real difference. After- this, the forearm size and muscular display becomes a true index of power.

Most forearms show the greatest development on the outside the Inside particularly when the muscles are flexed with the hand and forearm In the goose neck formation, is usually sadly lacking. When the front of the forearm is fully developed and when flexed will take on a canoe-like shape from wrist to elbow.

The front of the forearm takes on a different shape with different muscular types. Some display an abrupt bulk just bellow the elbow when the arm is posed in the goose neck position, and the rest of the arm to the wrist is slender. When this occurs, the forearm at its buging point looks larger than It really is. This happens when the frontal muscles are not fully developed over their entire length. As these muscles develop over their length, the sinew insertion into the muscles becomes thicker with the muscle, and this cordiness is what makes up the heavier wrist and stronger arm. I have seen many arms praised (because of this short abrupt bulking, but my experience has proved to me convincingly that they are not the strong type arm of outstanding physical merit. Men who are famous for their arm strength showed a forearm that bulked with thick sinew from the wrist to the elbow. The back of the forearm was broad with a muscular sweep rolling over the elbow and down. The ball of the thumb was thick muscle as also was the outside wall of the palm of the hand. Men like Karl Moerki and Thomas Inch are outstanding examples of men naturally endowed with small wrist bones. Their normal wrist did not exceed much over six inches in circumference, and the bony structure of the hand was small, but look what arms they built. You could see the powerful muscle banking on the front, and along the outside wall of the wrist, and they were both extremely powerfully armed.

developing forearms
Use revolving kettlebell handles on your dumbell for this exercise to give free wrist movement. Load the bells to 20 or 25 lbs. each. From the hang position as show, bend the hand on the wrist inward, slowly but forcibly, bending the elbow to get more action. Without a pause bend the hand on the wrist outward as dotted line shows, straightening the arm strongly. This is a progression of No. 17 and employs all the muscles on the outer arm with greater concentration on the frontal muscle.

Exercise will build for anyone splendid, powerfully formed forearms who strives hard and long enough, but one should also combine other variations of practices as an interesting deviation from exercise. Rope climbing is great, especially when one gets to the point where the rope can be climbed with hands alone. Chinning the bar to the half- up position, with the hands gripping in varied positions, such as the regular grip with palms of the hands facing front, then in the reverse position, then with hands using the alternate grip. Hand balancers always display powerful, well-formed forearms. The constant pushing up of their body-weight balanced on the hands employs every muscle in the forearm. Bending, and twisting iron bars into varied forms, and the bending and breaking of spikes is also a fine developer. The sport of wrist turning provides another fascinating form of forearm exercise. It is the particular sport of the strong armed fellow, and many wonderful tourneys of arm strength have I seen pitted together in a wrist turning contest.

In former Germany and Austria, there were hundreds of clubs that had teams devoted entirely to the sport of kettle bell juggling. What a he-man’s sport that is! The varied spins, twists and turns, the constant catching and swinging, saying nothing about the footwork, timing and keen eye required. It gets at every muscle as no other sport can. It is an arm developing sport de-luxe. On the other hand we read of feats claimed as being great feats of arm strength that actually are not. As an example, I can recall quite a number of years ago visiting a friend in an other city who simply worshipped a local Herculean athlete. He told me that this man would show me what real arm strength was. I was only a middleweight then, but was considered fairly strong-armed. This particular athlete had such a grip that he could raise off the table top a large iron ball which it was claimed no other athlete had ever been able to budge. While I have a large hand, the other fellow bad a larger hand. On sight, lie said I could not move the ball because my hands were not large enough. Nevertheless, he began to demonstrate and to the consternation of my friend he failed on every attempt. I then asked if I might try. My friend was indignant. What was the use of me trying when this giant had failed! He weighed about 265 lbs., nevertheless, at the first attempt I raised the ball, and held it, much to their consternation. This stunt was thought as being a great feat of arm strength. It was not as much a feat of arm strength as it was a feat of having so much strength and knowing how much to employ on the grip over a certain degree, simply squeezed the ball out of the hand. What the Hercules had not noted was that ‘I had an enormous thumb joint. In fact the thumb joint of my hand constitutes more than one-third of my hand spread and size. The thumb ‘being so large and strong, a-long with the little finger grip, did the trick. I merely employed enough force to enable the ball to cling to the hand and gently raised it off the table in a perpendicular line. A clever stunt all right, but did not require as much arm power as other feats I knew of, and which I had seen performed. This bears out what I say that many feats that imply great strength to perform are not always so, therefore, do not be misled, stick to the practices that are proven of the right order. Practice the exercises without deviation as instructed. Any deviation might only be some other fellow’s pet idea, or because he has some physical peculiarity that enables him to do a particular stunt difficult to others without the same peculiarity.

famous bodybuilder Dick Dubois
Dick Dubois from Demi-Gods magazine.

Personally, I regret that lifting clubs and body builders in this country do not follow the practice of juggling kettle bells. I will never forget my initiation into the sport. As a work-out, we stood in a wide circle and tossed the bell to each other. After only a very short time, and I mean short, my forearm muscles began to ache like no one’s business, but I stuck, vanity got the best of me, and for the next couple of days a my arms were like sticks. Later, I practiced the game with more common s sense, and attribute much of the gain gotten in forearm development along with the special exercises, to this sport.

There are numerous other exercises t that can be practiced which lack of s space prevents me from giving more t than I have herein, but these will suffice, and another article I will cover e more of them. While these exercises do give a wonderful benefit to the wrist, yet, there are other exercises that involve wrist movement exclusively. This is done by nutralizing as much forearm action as possible, making the wrist do the major work, which is the opposite in forearm exercise. The wrists will be treated in a s special separate article. I aim to make this series the greatest treatise of it physical development, far beyond the range of what a book could contain, only at a greater cost than one could pay. Follow them through and enjoy the practical benefits that experienced instructions yields to you. These forearm exercises will help you more than you may now realize. Start off with weights well within your control, and increase one repetition every third practice night until you have reached the limit of repetitions to comfortably perform. Never fatigue your muscles, instead, add a little more weight and start over with the original low count and work up as before, and the results will be, the development of a fine powerful forearm which will make you feel proud to roll up your sleeve and show to anyone.

Your Physique Volume 3 N 2, 1943

Why You Need To Exercise

Here’s Why You Need Scientific Exercise

By the editor of Your Physique

famous bodybuilder Jonh Grimek
Healthy living and Scientific exercise with weights has rewarded Jonh Grimek with the title of "Mr. America of 1941". Don't yon envy his trophy and magnificent physique? You may not be rewarded with a "Mr. America", title, but you will surely be more them amply repaid for your efforts by obtaining better health a stronger physique and a more manly appearance through the use of weights.

Too many persons cling to the delusion that because they work hard all week they are getting all the exercise they need and therefore do not require any additional exercise.

They do not realize that there is as much difference between work and scientific exercise as there is between night and day.

The facts are. work exhausts vitality, drains energy from the body, tears down physical structures. Work is tiring, devitalizing. Work of any kind very seldom ever builds magnificent muscles. The most muscular marvels whom you ever saw never secured their magnificent development from work, because ordinary physical labor never builds shapely, powerful, attractive muscles. Surprising as it may seem most of the world’s greatest Strong Men are “pen-pusher — men like John Grimek. Anthony Terlazzo. Johnny Terpak, and many others spend most of the day in an office, sitting at their desks. But who does not envy them their beautiful bodies, their tremendous strength?

From now on, forget the False idea that you are getting all the exercise you need from your daily work.

Scientific exercises are properly planed movements with some form of apparatus, which may be your choice of barbells, dumbells, cables or other such equipment. These intelligently directed movements soon bring about the most astonishing results — both internally and externally. Regardless of your age, if you are a reader of this publication, you need scientific exercise with some form of apparatus. This means that whether the acquisition of big muscles appeals to you or not. it still makes no difference, you NEED scientifically directed EXERCISE

Why? Here are more than a dozen reasons WHY you should start at once on a program of proper exercise under a capable Health Director.
1. Exercise is the Key to Personal Efficiency. Self Mastery, and the cultivation of Power of Will.

2. Exercise helps strengthen all the vital internal organs, tones up the liver, kidneys, heart. Intestines, sex organs — enabling these and other vital structures to perform their respective functions normally and healthfully.

3 Exercise improves and helps maintain the circulation of the blood, preventing stagnation sluggishness —

4 Exercise assists in removing fatigue poisons from the system, eliminating congestion.

5. Exercise helps build up new, healthier, stronger body cells.

6. Exercise greatly assists in keeping the body more radiantly ALIVE and BUOYANT. . . remember. ACTIVITY is LIFE and muscular inactivity and stagnation means death

7. Exercise helps to insure proper elimination of waste from the intestines and bowels. Anyone who is constipated certainly need exercise.

8. Exercise makes the mind sparkling, clear, keen, with greater trigger-like responsiveness.

9. Exercise aids the entire body in becoming more responsive and efficient, assuring a better coordination of nerve and muscle — thus giving you the ability to swiftly snap out of the way of approaching danger, thus avoiding costly, painful accidents.

10 Weakness, sickness and various manifestations of disease are prevented or overcome with the added aid of scientific exercise.

11. Exercise stimulates, arouses and tones up the various ductless and important endocrine glands.

12. Exercise make the VITAL Organs POWER HOUSES of Electrical Energy and Dynamic Strength.

13 Exercise prolongs YOUTH, helps pospone old age, stiffness tension 14. Exercise enables you to DO more. BE more. EARN more.

15 Exercise sweetens life. All time and money spent in exercising the body pays a LARGER interest than any other investments

Through work you EXHAUST, EXPEND your energy. It is power flowing OUT of your body. Something GONE from within you. It means a definite loss.

Muscle model Keith Wegeman
Keith Wegeman by Bruce of Los Angeles

By the aid of SCIENTIFIC Exercise you REVITALIZE the body, you recharge the exhausted cells. It is power coming INTO your body from without- You are GENERATING NEW ENERGY (assuming you also eat correctly). SCIENTIFIC Exercises RECHARGE the human battery. With all of these reasons given, I have not mentioned the fact that it is only by SCIENTIFIC Exercise that big, powerful muscles can be build altho this is the chief ambition of so many young, ambitious fellows, — and a worthy ambition at that.

Now that these facts have been brought clearly to your attention you will understand right away WHY you do not get all the exercise you need from your work. I’ve seen coal miners, workers doing the hardest kind of manual labor in steel mills, men working all day with pick and shovel and laborers in hundreds of ether fields of endeavor — but never have I seen one of these men with a physique the equal of any of our Great Strong Men and Muscular Marvels… and neither have you.

And here’s a most astonishing fact. The average person has an idea that to acquire such a muscular physique as our great Strong Men possess- demands an extraordinary amount of hard work. This is not true. Some intensive training about three evenings a week for a few months will show the most astonishing results. It is not a question of hard work, but rather the correct type of exercises enthusiastically performed: faithfully, persistently, patiently continued. Let me repeat, it is not “hard work” or exhausting effort that builds mighty muscles — but a properly balanced diet and a few well directed scientific exercises performed for a few minutes every other day.

Light calisthenics and free hand movements are largely a waste of time and effort if you are seeking REAL HE-MAN muscles. There are powerful body-resisting exercises which are extremely beneficial which can, and often should, be used in conjunction with your apparatus.

Regardless of your condition you can be greatly helped by the aid of scientific exercise. This means, properly directed exercise planned for your particular needs given by a really competent instructor. Teacher or Trainer who has specialized in this phase of professional activity. Your condition is carefully studied, so no matter whether you have a weak heart, are ruptured, etc, certain corrective exercises are designed to help you back to normalcy. Even bed-ridden patients in hospitals have to exercise with weights. These were not barbells or dumbells but weights attached to pulleys suspended from a wooden frame built over the patients beds, to help them regain the muscular power in their legs, thighs, arm, back etc.

It makes no difference what your age — you need scientific apparatus-exercise. This docs not mean that a man of 75 or 85 years of age is expected to toss over head several hundred pounds. Nothing of the kind it does mean that we should all train with suitable exercises adapted to our needs. And observe I wrote ‘train’, not strain. Scientific exercise is PROGRESSIVE. As you gain in strength and muscular power the amount of the weight or resistance is increased according to your increasing needs

Exercising with some form of apparatus makes it more interesting, offers greater resistance, speeds results, enables you to concentrate on what you are doing better. Each piece of equipment is designed for convenience and efficiency. As already stated, one of the finest and best investments every man and young man can make for themselves. No home is complete without some form of exercising apparatus, and every home should have an exercise-room or training quarters where all the family can participate in their choice of scientific body-conditioning exercise.

Because you may indulge in various games sports, golf, or other outdoor activities do not assume that that is sufficient. The ‘mind’ is concentrated on the game or excelling in the sport rather than the specific physical benefits. However, all scientific exercise will help you play a better game, become more proficient in your favorite sport.

The term “becoming muscle-bound’ by intensive exercise has scared many thousands away from acquiring a beautiful body, but let it be known that such a condition positively does NOT exist. Scientific exercise with any kind of apparatus invariably makes the various muscle groups supple, limber, responsive soft muscular tissue when relaxed: and absolutely flexible. So do not fear the bogey idea of a purely imaginary condition of ‘muscle bound’. Stiffness in the muscles comes from eating too mud starchy food and a lack of scientific exercise

In seeking advice on any subject ask an authority, a specialist on the particular problem. Don’t ask someone who knows nothing about SCIENTIFIC exercise whether or not you should exercise Ask us. because its our business to know and give you sincere, unbiased facts based on more than a quarter of a century of practical experience in dealing with hundreds of thousands of men In every part of the globe. Don’t ask your parents, your so-called “friends”, acquaintances or most local doctors as they know very little about scientific exercises adapted to your particular needs. It is sad the (misconceptions so many supposedly -learned” doctors have regarding exercise. Usually they advise against exercise because they are evidently ignorant of the true facts regarding scientific exercise or else do not want to lose a “paying” patient.

There is nothing difficult or complicated or hard about any exercise which we advocate. We strive to make them as simple as possible, as easy, as pleasant, as resultful as possible. No silly contortionist tricks or queer, stupid stunts. Scientific exercises are planned and designed to save your time, your effort, your temper.

Even though you are not interested in acquiring “Big Muscles” do not neglect your exercise. You need regular exercise. It’s a good habit to form. Performing your exercise regularly for at least a few minutes every other day helps you maintain that grip on yourself; prevents you from slipping, physically. . . and mentally

Scientific exercise is usually best performed with some type of apparatus. What kind of equipment you use does not so much matter, as the thing that really counts, is using it consistently, faithfully, regularly. So many fellows find their exercise periods so fascinating that when they secure one piece of equipment they want more. And it really is a big help to have on hand barbells, dumbbells, cables, iron shoes and the abdominal board; extra plates, bars, collars for dumbells of different weights for different exercises

There is no excuse for not exercising. You have been told why it is necessary. Courses by Internationally Known Health Educators are available to give expert, personal instruction according to your individual needs. The different types of apparatus are still available at unusually low prices Don’t deny yourself or your family all the many benefits which exercise with scientific equipment can bring to you. Use the long winter evenings by giving yourself an intensive Body Building and Conditioning Course and whip that body of yours into. A. I. shape before the warm summer days are here.

There are many things during this war — you can very well get along without. But its patriotic to keep or get FIT Weaklings and the inefficient are definitely out. It’s a DUTY, an OBLIGATION and a PRIVILEGE to put yourself in SUPERB condition for your Country. It’s sabotage to deliberately neglect yourself.

We want to be fair, to be honest, to be absolutely sincere. We have always strived to be, so we have said, and repeat again, that health cannot be obtained from the application of only ONE method. Health depends upon the intelligent application of ALL Natural Health methods. You need the right kind of foods, baths, sun and air baths, rest and relaxation, living under favorable conditions, .maintaining emotional control, elimination of all destructive forces and such factors as well as scientific exercise But we say, EXERCISE is MOST important, so vital and essential to your best welfare you can’t afford to ignore or neglect it. Start TODAY and get the Courses, the Training and Equipment you need NOW.

Your Physique, Volume 3 № 1, Mar 1943

The Mighty Triceps

The Mighty Triceps

By George F. Jowett

exercise for triceps
The archer movement with cables is an excellent exercise fur building up the triceps muscles. From the position shown straighten the arms from the elbows only to shoulder level. Be sure to thoroughly straighten the arm, slowly and smoothly. Practice with both arms.

ONE day I was amused in watching a group of young men practicing a series of impromptu feats of strength among themselves In a Turner’s gym. One young fellow with an imposing development, particularly of the arms, had them all stopped in chinning the bar. and curling d umbel Is and barbell to the shoulders from the full arm hang position, but what puzzled all his comrades was the fact that he was no better, and not as good as one of the boys In slowly raising a barbell or dumbell to arms’ length overhead. They just could not figure it out. None of them could compare with this particular young chap in arm development, but there it was. He could do so many feats of arm strength the others could not, but he was sunk when it came to feats of overhead lifting. The answer, while puzzling to them, is very simple. This young chap only excelled in feats where the forearm was bent on the upper arm in such movements as curling, chinning and dipping In other words he was all biceps, and only where the biceps muscles were involved did he excel. He failed at all movements, that Is in proportion to his other stunts, simply because he had no worth-while triceps development, and all feats that require the strengthening of the arms overhead, and even when pressing down, with straight aims, are controlled by the action of the triceps muscles.

bodybuilding workout for triceps
Hold the dumbells as shown, with the upper arm in line with the back, and slowly straighten the bent arms. Use a pair of right dumbells and make sure that only the lower part of the arms is straighten out. Keep the elbows in at the sides without moving them, while performing the exercise.

This again brings out the fact which I have so often stressed upon — that the size of the upper arm is not a true criterion of upper arm strength as much as is balanced upper arm development. The upper arm girth may measure much less than that of another, yet to the surprise of the larger-armed chap, the other fellow will excel in more feats of strength. Some explain this as being better in performing the tricks, or knowing the knack of doing a thing, whereas, others claim the big-armed fellow has more beef than strength. This Is rarely true, yet most people believe It. especially when they see an untrained man equal or beat is most arm-building enthusiasts center all their efforts on biceps development and pay little or no attention to the triceps, with the result that they are only able to excel on particular feats such as curling, dipping and chinning the bar. The body builder travels further who pays more attention to balanced development than the one who sticks to isolated development of one particular group of muscle. Vanity, and the craze for large girthed muscles is the cause of this isolated development fad.

bodybuilding exercise for triceps
The alternate press with dumbells is another good arm and shoulder exercise. Bring both dumbells to the shoulder- and alternately press them overhead as high as possible. Practice with kettlebells if possible, as they give a greater extension and longer pull to the muscles, and tills is what brings results.

One must always remember that the biceps act antagonistic to the triceps, and vice versa. The word antagonistic, while commonly used to explain the point is not wholly true. I would prefer to say that each support the other, except in such movements where one acts independently of the other. In this case one muscle is relaxed while the other performs, but in many movements and the majority of movements of the upper arms, the triceps and the biceps act together. As one muscle fullfils its duty the other takes up its appointed duty and carries on. You see this properly demonstrated when a person picks a barbell or dumbell from off the floor to the shoulders, and then raises the weight overhead. In the first movement the biceps function to the point of just beginning to raise the weight overhead at which point the triceps take up and perform most of the work. This clearly shows that the more balanced the development of these two muscular groups are, the more perfect will be the completion of the lift overhead.

The triceps form the bulk of the back of the upper arm as the word triceps implies it is in a three-fold muscle finally inserted into one common tendon. This muscle originates from beneath the deltoid of shoulder cap muscles. They are divided into an inner head, an outer head and a long head. The first two heads are attached onto the extremity of the bone of the upper arm. The long head is attached to the end of the clavicle, or collar bone, and onto the tip of the shoulder blade. The bulk of these three muscles quickly merge into a broad tendon at a point easily visible to the eye when this muscle is contrated forcibly by straightening the arm. The tendon forms the flat part of the upper arm down to the elbow and is flanked on each side by the muscles as they flow down to insertion about the elbow joint. The triceps have powerful control over the forearm. Their chief function is in straightening the forearm with the upper arm.

bodybuilding exercise for triceps
Take a dumbell to full stretch overhead, the arm should ho straight and vertical and the upper arms should accordingly be against the side of your head. Without moving the upper arm and body, bend the elbow fully and bring the arm down to the position shown, resting dumbell against shoulder, behind the neck. Then straighten the arm back to its original position overhead. A light dumbell should be used in this exercise.

In former articles of this series when explaining the muscles of the forearm and of the upper arm. I have shown how strongly certain forearm muscles aid the triceps in operation. Chief among these are the supinator longus and the anconeous. Particularly the later though partly visible on an anatomical chart, the major part of it hidden under the supinator longus and under the triceps as this muscle travels from the forearm up onto the upper arm. These two accessory muscles act as the arm just begins to straighten and when the arm is completely straightened, making the arm lock more definite. The start aids the triceps to get under way and again comes into action at the point just before the arm straightens, known to lifters as the weak point. This point is only weak because the muscles arc not as fully developed as should be in order to fully co-operate. Perhaps this fact will also make clear to my readers why I have advocated to lifters raising upward a dumbell from the shoulders only about six Inches from the shoulders also, while holding a weight overhead, merely lowering the weight a few Inches and then slowly straightening the arm These two exercises movements develop and strengthen these muscles at the point that is most important to a weight lifting enthusiast.

The triceps are very powerful muscles, in fact, much more powerful in proportion to size than are the biceps. This is because the biceps are more shorter ranged in operation. Judging arm strength by results, it would pay every body-builder and weight-lifter to pay greater attention to the development of the triceps than is usually done for the biceps.

Most body-builders when taking their upper arm measurement do so with the biceps flexed, for this reason we are more familiar with arm size when measured from this position, but. if all would make a point to give the measurement of the upper arm when held relaxed and straight by the sides, one could readily judge by comparison whether the biceps were more developed than the triceps. In other words, there would not be so great a difference between the flexed upper arm girth and the relaxed measurement. Incidentally, many do not take the measurement of the upper arm correctly. If they did, some upper arms would measure more than is ordinary shown. Many flex the bleeps, bending the forearm as much as possible upon the upper arm When this Is done, the triceps become completely stretched, and where there should be a full curve on the under side of the upper arm there is a flat line. The forearm should be held almost at right angles with the upper arm which permits biceps and triceps alike to supply their bulk to measurement. Of course if the arm lacks triceps development, holding the forearm at any angle when the biceps are flexed will mean nothing additional.

bodybuilding workout for arms
With arms at the sides, raise dumbell hack-wards as shown, following dotted lines. When you reach the limit of the backward raise as shown, raise the knuckles upwards bending it towards the forearm. It is very important that the body does not move forward from the waist, when performing the exercise. Use the strength of the triceps only to perform this movement.

Men who have reached the summit of arm development always are blest with a pair of powerful triceps. Among heavyweights, the stronger and larger the triceps become the less definitation will be shown. They bulk very heavily. In such cases the only proof of powerful triceps development is the crest of the horseshoe formation of muscle that rises from the fascia midway on the back of the upper arm. In a few cases this condition is exceptional, such as with Hackenschmidt, whose triceps formation was as clear and as clean cut as that of a lightweight Of course Sandow showed finely molded triceps, but he was not a heavy weight in the sense of the word as we nowadays accept the term. At his best he weighed about 186 lbs., and around this body-weight I can mention many who display triceps even more perfectly molded than most biceps. Nevertheless, the real heavyweights have real triceps power, otherwise their arm power, particularly in the slow overhead lifts and jerks, would never have achieved the records credited to these men of might. One can always tell powerful triceps the moment they see a bare arm. The width across the arm just below the deltoid gives the story. Of course, we know that big strong men always run to massivenesa. Their muscles become so densified with muscular fibre hardly any separation is visible, but do not let this deceive you as to the existence of muscle and power. Of course it all depends on what one is after. If the purpose is purely body building with a desire to develop the muscles so that they display separation, this can be done by omitting the practice of heavyweight lifting Heavyweight lifting brings out the fullest in muscular size, but also densifies the structure in the process. One could not become extraordinarily strong without this happening, and to many, this development is a desirable conquest. Now do not get me wrong by thinking weight lifting does not produce men with a clear muscular separation it certainly does in numerous cases, but what I mean is you will find more real strong men with smooth, silky muscles and less separation than you will among those who strive purely for development for the purpose of muscular display.

exercise for arms
The press behind the neck. With the barbell resting on the shoulders behind the neck, slowly and steadily press it overhead us shown. Be sure to keep the barbell behind the head throughout the exercise. If is important that you press it back away from the head and finish of the exercise with the barbell behind your head instead of in front. You may not be able to handle as much weight but results is what you want, so try the right way and see the results for yourself.

After reading this you may be a little confused and wonder what is the difference in the exercise process to ac quire one or the other. It is very simple. The practice of heavyweight lifting involves a less number of exercises in one period and over a shorter length of time per exercise period, and less practice nights per week. Weight lifting exercises Involve whole groups of muscles in each exercise, whereas, for the purpose of separation, less weight is involved, but more repetitions per exercise, and more exercises to be practiced at each period, and these I every night Repeated repetitions of an I exercise directly imposed upon one single muscle group will cause greater fibre construction. Constant contraction causes separation and shapeliness more than it does increase size. While size will culminate, yet it does not show its gains as much as it shows separation and shaping of the muscles, and the more exercises that can be performed to stimulate a muscle, or the least muscle group from all points of operating angle, the greater contraction of the muscle and allied muscles, which is the reason why more repetitions and more exercises per period, and every night weekly, will create finer muscular separation. While this explains a point that perhaps is important to you, and which is important in explaining the difference to those who are not aware of the facts and wish to know them — what I has it got to do with the development of the triceps in size, shape, separation and strength. It has a great deal to do with it for no other reason than because barbell or dumbell exercise alone will not give one the fullest in triceps development. Barbell and dumbbells give a very limited form of exercise for the triceps. Therefore, other factors must be considered that will function the triceps from all they varied angles they are capable of functioning

bodybuidling exercise for triceps
Raise the left arm backwards resisting with the right as shown. See that you move the arm backward from the shoulder only and keep the body erect. Practice with both arms.

Many body builders get a set notion that weights are the only thing even to the exclusion of all other methods and other apparatus. It is a wrong attitude. While I agree on the greater efficiency of progressive weights, yet I never met a man who had reached the peak of success in development and strength, who had not recognized the fact that his training periods must be mixed exercise in order to get the best out of ail the muscles.

There is a saying that a good workman always is plentifully supplied with the best tools. It is the same with the good body builder. He will recognize the necessity of employing other tools and methods for obvious reasons, other than weights, and will use than in the right place. I have used all forms of apparatus while not yielding first place to them in preference to progressive weights. I have used cable pulls for certain muscles I have used spring grips, dumbbells-grips, chest weights and what have you. and enjoyed them one of the forms of exercise I ever indulged in was that of swinging heavy weighted clubs, something one never hear tell of these days. I used to have a pair knocking around up to a short time ago. and have often been quite amused watching the helpless antics of many who stand high in strength fame today, trying to swing them They are the equal of kettle-bell juggling for the arms and shoulders, and provide a far more strenuous training routine. Then we had the single club, one that weighed from eighty pounds as to whatever you desire, which was swung in all directions while gripped with both hands. They made you realize you had a pair of triceps and if they were below par in strength and development they quickly improved. Breaking iron shoes afforded fine triceps works, and many years ago I used the iron shoe exercise purely for triceps and arm purposes, a-long with my other weight training exercises Cable pulls of strong elastic can be used to give fine triceps exercise, as also can the gymnastic exercise, dipping between the parallel bars.

bodybuilding for arms
Stretching cables across the hack or in front of the chest is an excellent exercise for the tricep muscles. Many good arm exercises could be done with a chest expander. It is one of the finest piece of apparatus in developing the triceps.

Just try standing between pair of parallel bars, pressing with the hands on the bars as you raise the legs up backward while held straight, until you are m a pianche. You nail soon find out If your triceps are strong or not as this ss purely a triceps feat that cannot be equalled with weights. Hold the chest cable expander at arms’ length behind the back, and with straight arms raise the arms out and up, until they are in a line level with the shoulders. This is a pure triceps exercise, providing you do not bend the body while performing the movement. Raising a dumbell backwards, and twisting the arm when the full back arm raise has been made will give the triceps a fine work out, but the trouble it is so easy to swing the body with the arm raise, that the best value in the exercise for the triceps becomes lost. Yes, you can lift a barbell from the position where it hangs at aims’ length across the back of the thighs, and then with straight arms, lift up backwards as high as possible. This is line if — you do it right, but too many bend too far forward as they raise the arms, with the result, that they hardly raise the aims at all. They only bend forward, and think they are doing it right, but this kind of mental telepathy will not help a little bit The exercises I have mentioned with either apparatus give you less chance to mislead yourself, with the results, better triceps action is gained, and muscular action is what origins results

bodybuilding workout for arms
The side press is another good exercise. In this exercise a heavier dumbell could be used but be sure to do the exercise correctly. Bring a dumbell to the shoulder and take the position us shown, feet no more then fifteen inches apart, bend slowly to the left side and straighten the right arm overhead. When this is done bring the body back to its original position and then lower the dumbell lo the shoulder and repeat. Be sure to use both arms in this exercise.

Be broad-minded with your training. Study the things that will give you the development benefits you desire, and use those methods. It is no travesty from a principle to use a chest cable pull for one exercise in your weight-lifting exercise training. Chest cable pulls. as well as other things mentioned herein, are tools of the trade so to speak. I never came across a truly successful body builder who could say that in all his life he had never used any but one type apparatus to secure his strength, size and development. Thomas Inch, the great English strength athlete was very fond of chest cable exercise mingled with his barbell and dumbbell routine. If you think it is only weaklings or sissies that use this type of apparatus, you ought to try stretching the cables Inch could stretch few strong men could budge them let alone completely stretch hem. It helped to make their muscles more versatile and supple it allowed the weight training program to secure better results. On the whole, weights cannot be surpassed, but for some muscles where weights are restricted in their adaptability to function the muscles completely, use other means and apparatus if they will do the work.

Results are what you are after so do not turn down a point that will help you secure the results, particularly does this advice hold good In the consideration of triceps development. The point to remember is that all movements that straighten the arms, and permit the arms to be turned while the arms are held In the straight arm position, and also permit a turn or twist while the arm is evolving into the straight arm position, provide triceps stimulation and development. Therefore, bearing this in mind, you will not find it difficult to form a triceps exercise routine, adding to the exercises illustrated within this article.

bodybuilding lying exercise for armsTake the above position grasp the barbell as shown by dotted lines and straighten the arms. Don’t swing the barbell but use the strength of the triceps to bring it to arms length overhead. Other good exercises that can be done from this position is the prone press, shoulder press and belly tows. All are good triceps exercises, and plenty of weight can be used.

Your Physique, Volume 3 № 1, Mar 1943

Strengthen Your Grip And Forearms

Here is a simple course of exercises you can follow. GUARANTEED to add inches of muscle to your forearms, and to strengthen your hands.


exercise for muscle training pictureEXERCISE A. The good old dead lift is great for the grip. Suppose you can make a two hands dead lift of 400 pounds. Take one hundred pounds less 300 pounds . . . and lift it to finish position. Simply hold it until the grip gives out, replacing it on the floor in time to prevent damage to same and the arousing of parental wrath. You can also use a one hand ‘dead lift version. Loading up a heavy dumbbell and walking around the room with it is good for the grip An astonishing feat of strength was the performance by John Davis. He carried two 100 pound dumbbells for one block, then up three flights of stairs to Sig Klein’s gym without once putting them down.

EXERCISE B. The rotation movements can be best performed on a Lat Machine. As you can see from the illustration, the upper arm rests along a bench while the forearm is held straight up and down. Replace the bar of the lat machine by a loop of rope or canvas. Have a training partner pull it down to your grasp, then simply rotate the hand or twist it backwards and forwards as depicted.

muscle training exercises drawing

EXERCISE C. Here’s another wonderful exercise for the forearms. Grasp a barbell in one hand and hold it at the shoulder as if you were going to press it overhead. Hold it SLIGHTLY off center so there is either a back hang or a forward hang to the weight. In fact it is best to do sets with both a back hang, and a hang to the front. With a back hang, simply pull the inside edge of the hand DOWN. With a front hang pull the thumb side of the hand BACK. Don’t have too much of an “off center” grip or else .the leverage will be too greatf.

forearms and grip muscle training drawingsEXERCISE D. A great exercise for the muscles along the back of the forearm is the following. Kneel down before a lengthwise placed exercise bench. Place the forearms across it with the backs of the hands up. A barbell is held in the hands with a shoulder width grip. From this position lower the hands by bending at the wrist then raising them as high as you can. USE A THUMB AROUND THE BAR GRIP! Don’t forget to lower and raise the barbell as high as you can.

EXERCISE E. The reverse position of the above movement is also very effective. Care must be taken to use a thumb around the bar grip, else the weight might fall out of the hands. But in this second exercise, don’t raise the hands until they are upright. First lower the bar as much as possible, then raise the hand until it is LEVEL WITH THE FLOOR! Hold it in this position for a SLOW count of three, then lower and repeat. Actually the same procedure can be followed in Exercise D, but it is wise not to try the same style with BOTH movements since it is very strenuous. This makes use of the STATIC contraction principle … use of the muscles to hold or maintain a position.

Follow these movements as well as the ones given in the first chapter of this Forearm article. Don’t be afraid to work hard on the forearm muscles since they’ll stand plenty of work. In addition, a wrist roller will come in very handy for use AFTER the barbell movements. This will help pump the muscles up and keep them flushed with blood.

American Apollo Volume 1 № 2.
Publisher: Calvin T. Beck

Your Complete Weight Gaining Course

Every step of the way

By BARTON HORVATH World’s Foremost Weight Training Authority

If all the bodybuilders in the world met in one giant auditorium and by mutual consent e-elected to discuss only one phase of bodybuilding, “How to gain weight”, would be that topic.

There is more interest in gaining muscular bodyweight than all other subjects combined. It is fitting, therefore, that in its debut, Muscle Man Magazine reveals everything you need to know about gaining in the following text.

WHO CAN GAIN WEIGHT: Based on my 30 years in the bodybuilding game, during which time I have personally supervised the training of thousands, I say that EVERYONE who is underweight with the exception of Medical cases, can, and will, gain weight as a result of scientific weight training.

HOW MUCH CAN YOU GAIN: The amount you can gain is directly controlled by your degree of underweight, your height and your bone structure. A short man standing 5′ tall will weigh between 125 and 140 pounds when fully developed. At 5’4″, muscular body-weight will vary between 150 and 170 pounds. At 5’8″, 175 to 200pounds. Above 5’8′, limitations on bodyweight depend solely on how much more than 200 pounds the individual can carry without showing signs of soft bulk.

HOW FAST WILL YOU GAIN: It is not possible to accurately predict the speed with which all beginners will gain. Some gain weight quickly right from the start and keep gaining until they have reached a husky bodyweight. Others gain less slowly. Still others lose a few pounds the first week or so before they start gaining. Initial reaction to weight gaining methods are extremely variable. They are also no indication of future potential. A slow gainer may eventually catch up to, and go beyond, another bodybuilder who gained quickly at the start and then slowed down. As long as each month shows some bodyweight increase the methods you are following are correct for you and in time will produce all the results you want.

WHAT ABOUT FOOD SUPPLEMENTS: There can be no question about the benefits of food supplements. Protein, weight gaining preparations and wheat germ oil have all been proved valuable in thousands and thousands of authenticated cases. The underweight bodybuilder who supplements his diet increases his chances of gaining weight faster.

WHICH FOODS ARE BEST: The average American diet is high in calories. There are some 60 million citizens who are overweight based on good health standards. These overweight people shop in the usual stores, prepare food in much the manner as you and when they eat out, they patronize the same type resturarants. Impartially analyzed, it becomes a matter of ‘quantity’ more so than ‘choice’. They either eat more at regular meals or they eat more frequently. In this way they obtain more calories daily and they gain weight.

It is not necessary, therefore, for you to make any major changes in your diet. Eat as you always have, but try to eat a bit more. If you lack appetite, take HEFT daily. You can also enjoy a few light ‘between meals’ snacks. A glass of milk and a few crackers mid-afternoon and shortly before retiring will not overburden the digestive system and will supply important extra weight gaining calories.

ABOUT REST AND RELAXATION: 24 hours a day, during waking hours and sleep, the body is burning fuel in the form of calories. Consumption is greatest during periods of physical activity; least during sleep. It is imperative that the underweight bodybuilder obtain 8 hours sleep nightly.

WON’T I LOSE MORE WEIGHT IF I EXERCISE: A work out with weights actually consumes less calories than a leisurely walk. It is broken into short periods of exercise during which a proportionately large number of calories are utilized and periods of rest, when a comparatively small number of calories are used. The overall consumption is less than an uninterrupted walk. In addition, bodybuilding soon tones the muscles and the organs, creating a condition of increased efficiency. The bodybuilder sleeps more soundly, benefits more fully from food eaten and learns how to work and exercise with greatest physical economy. His workouts, therefore, actually result in a consevation and building of energy. The untrained individual wastes his storehouse of energy and for that reason he remains thin.

WHAT ARE THE BEST WEIGHT GAINING EXERCISE: Every scientific weight gaining program is centered around ‘basic’ exercises. These are movements which stimulate large muscle areas and which produce growth receptiveness. The exercises explained here are typical ‘basic’ or weight gaining movements.

LAY OFFS: If you feel tired and if usual weights feel heavy, miss the next work out. As long as lay offs are not taken more than once a month, they are refreshing and helpful to weight gaining.

THE EXERCISES: Follow the exercises in the sequence listed. Do not perform any others. Do not train between regular work out days. Try to get as much rest as practical when not training. Make a sincere effort to gradually step up your caloric intake. If appetite is lazy, take HEFT daily.

getting weight for bodybuilders

HOW ARE THE EXERCISES TO BE PERFORMED: Three times a week training is best for the underweight bodybuilder. Work outs should be thorough, but not exhausting. Moderately heavy poundages should be used and they should be regularly increased in keeping with added strength and bodyweight. Repetitions should be on the low side — about 8 each exercise. From one to three sets of each exercise are to be performed dependent on the experience of the bodybuilder. Slight muscular soreness should follow each exercise period. Soreness should leave before next training session.

course for bodybuilders

1 – Bench Press. Lie on a flat exercise bench with a barbell held at arm’s length above the chest as shown in illustration #1. Take a deep breath and lower barbell to the chest. Press barbell to arm’s length, exhaling while doingso and repeat.

2 – Bent Arm Pullover. Hold barbell at chest as shown in illustration #2. Raise barbell a few inches to clear face and while taking a deep breath lower to behind the head. Draw barbell to starting position, exhaling while doing so and repeat.

3 – Lying Laterals. Hold a pair of dumbbells above the chest. Take a deep breath and lower them to the sides as shown in illustration #3. Exhale and draw weights to arm’s length above the chest.

4 – Shrugs. Hold a barbell in the hands as shown in illustration #4. Pull shoulders up to ears. Lower and repeat.

5 – Bent Forward Rowing. Hold a barbell at arm’s stretch toward the floor. Take a deep breath and pull barbell up toward chest as shown in illustration #5. Lower weight to arm stretch, exhaling while doing so and repeat.

6 – Barbell Curl. Hold a barbell in the hands, palms front bar at the thigh. Take a deep breath and curl the barbell to the shoulders as shown in illustration #6. Exhale and lower barbell to the starting position. Repeat.

7 – Triceps Press. Hold a barbell behind the head, elbows raised as shown in illustration#7. Straighten the arms and raise the barbell to arm’s length above the face. Lower to the starting position. Repeat.

8 – Squats. Hold a barbell across the rear shoulders while standing erect. Take a deep breath and sink into a low squat position as shown in illustration #8. Return to an erect position, exhaling while doing so and repeat.

9 – Side Bends. Hold a dumbbell in one hand and bend over directly to one side as shown in illustration #9. Draw the body to an erect position and repeat. Exercise one side and after a short rest exercise the other.

MENTAL APPROACH: A defeatist attitude should not be tolerated. This is true whether your aim is to gain weight, get ahead in your job or to win the girl of your choice. Confidence is infectious—build up an inner drive and a power of determination. Vow that nothing can hold you back. If you do, you will succeed. If you do not, you are doomed to failure. Always remember these truths!

Muscle Man, v.1 № 1.

Your Great Breathing Muscle


by Joseph E. Weider
Editor-in-Chief and Publisher

Do you know the natural way to breathe? Where are your great breathing muscles located? How can they be strengthened and of what benefit can they mean to you? An enlightened article that should be read and practiced by everyone.

extraordinary dreadnought chest pose of Frank Leight
This extraordinary dreadnought chest pose of Frank Leight, was submitted for publication by his photographer Lon, of New York City. Many of our readers will remember that Frank Leight's chest was selected as the best in America, by leading authorities year after year.

As you of course know, the diaphragm is the floor of the chest, separating the heart and lungs above from the stomach and liver below it; it is the partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

We breathe in two ways: by raising the ribs and holding the diaphragm still, or secondly, by lowering the diaphragm while the ribs remain stationary. Of course, these methods may be combined, and most people really do blend them more or less.

When muscularly exerting ourselves we need all the air available, and we instinctively secure it by breathing deeply both ways. But, by far the greater portion of time is spent in comparative repose; so the manner of breathing during these hours must be highly important.

Diaphragmatic breathing — permitting the ribs to remain virtually stationary while we contract and relax the diaphragm — is the proper method for repose, and this is proved by several facts. The descent of the diaphragm gently massages all the organs below it, improving the digestive and eliminative functions. Habitual chest breathing leaves the abdominal organs inert, except when they are stirred by vigorous bodily exercise. Secondly, the absorption of oxygen from a given volume of air is greater when it is breathed diaphragmatically than when the chest method is used. Thirdly, breathing with “the floor of the chest” means a considerable economy of muscular energy, because to raise the ribs involves some of the body’s largest muscles.

But with the average person, the diaphragm grows weaker after the first few years of childhood. Unhealthful habits, tight clothing, and especially careless, stooping posture in walking and sitting, cramp the great breathing muscle. From inactivity, it finally loses nearly all of its involuntary action, moving only by an effort of our will. Many persons lose control of it entirely, and many suffer for years from various organic complaints as a result. One of the finest things any boy or girl could do for his or her health and strength is to guard against loss of the
diaphragm’s natural action, as he or she grows older.

Weider-era bodybuilder London's Sid Robertson
Sid Robertson by Les Demi-Dieux

Test yourself now. Stand erect, hands on front and sides of upper chest, fingers spread. Now take an ordinary breath and see where the expansion occurs. If you feel the ribs rise and your waistline remains unmoved, your breathing is chest respiration. If the ribs hold their place and the abdomen expands, you are breathing diaphragmatically — properly for all times except when exercising.

Sometimes a person, in trying to breathe diaphragmatically, will contract the abdominal muscles and mistake their expansion for the result of the diaphragm’s descent. Guard against that; the muscles must remain relaxed so that the diaphragm may descend easily. Its ascent is simply a matter of its own muscular relaxation between the downward movements. Practice persistently, always keeping your mind on the exercise. Every week’s work will show results, till the habit is formed.

I have known diaphragms to be so weak that no amount of effort while the person was standing would bring them under voluntary control. In such cases one must lie down. Reclining on the back makes diaphragmatic breathing far easier, and by keeping the hands on the chest walls one can tell very accurately how he is coming on.

Breathe slowly, letting inhalation and exhalation occupy about the same length of time. Never hold your breath for more than a few seconds. At first you should not try to breathe very deeply; for your diaphragmatic capacity may be small for several weeks, and a too forceful inspiration will shift you into the chest method.

Your Physique Volume 3 N 6, February-March 1944

Waisting Away

Waisting Away

how to train your waistlineA soft, flabby, unmuscular waistline ruins the appearance of many a guy who otherwise might be admired for his physique. Perhaps more than any other feature of the body, the waist is the barometer of physical condition. The average man who loves his coffee with cream, his pie, and his beer, sooner or later finds himself spreading in the mid-section. Exercise alone probably won’t keep that trim youthful waist for you. Eating is important, too. But assuming one goes easy on foods which tend to build up fatty tissue (often first deposited in the form of an unsightly paunch), exercise can help maintain or achieve a trim, muscular waist.

get perfect waistline exercisesWhether you use weights or not, ‘along with your push-ups you can easily do sit-ups and leg raises. They’re doubtless the most effective exercise for keeping down the waistline. And you don’t need a gym for this kind of work-out. Sit-ups can easily be performed on a chair placed sideways next to a bed or some heavy piece of furniture under which you can anchor your feet. (See Fig. 1 & 2). Then, with your hands behind your head, you can go to it! If you have a tendency to spread, at least three sets of not less than fifteen repetitions should be performed every other day.

Leg raises can just as easily be done at home. Place your hands behind your head and grasp the bed springs .or table top) for support. (See Fig. 3 & 4). And then raise away! Use the same number of reps and sets as with sit-ups.

Better watch your waist! Once it has spread, it’s no easy job to trim it down.

American Apollo Volume 1 № 1, May 1958.
Publisher: New World Enterprises Syndicate

The Deep Knee – Bend

The Deep Knee – Bend

body training exercise: deep knee bend

This is one of the most beneficial of all exercises and should be a part of every bodybuilder’s exercise program. Begin the deep knee-bend by standing erect, hands on hips and feet a comfortable distance apart (Position #1). For better balance, place your heels on a book or block of wood an inch or two thick. Inhale. Then, keeping your back perfectly straight, lower your body-to a squatting position until your buttocks touch your heels (Position #2). Pause and exhale. Then return to the starting position. Do at least twelve repetitions.

Variations on the basic exercise can be undertaken as you progress. Try it, for instance, with your feet flat on the floor and close together. Or use a weight either placed across your shoulders or held in each hand.

One of the most beneficial variations of the deep knee-bend is to perform it squatting on one leg at a time, with the other leg held straight out in front of you. At first you will probably need to hold onto some stationary object like a chair, bed or dresser. In time you will learn to keep your balance without holding on to anything. Try it with your arms stretched out straight in front as you go into Position #2, returning your hands to your hips as you regain Position #1. After you’re good at this, you can hold a weight in each hand for more muscle-building strain.

The deep knee-bend is especially good for the upper leg region. It develops the Vastus Externus (the long muscle that runs along the outside of the upper leg) and the Vastus Internus (the muscle situated at the front and inside of the leg just above the knee). It also aids in the development of the Gluteus Maximus (the buttocks muscles) and broadens the chest as a result of the deep breathing it requires.

Learn the basic exercise thoroughly first, then try the variations. You’re only as good as your legs — and the deep knee-bend will give you strong, well-proportioned ones.

Future Man Volume 1 № 1, Winter 1962

Publisher: Physique Press

Why should you train with weights

Physique vintage photography
Husky fellows and pretty girls are attracted to each other. Champion Mike Sill and pretty companion are happy twosome, here. Delmonteque.


The World’s Foremost Physical Consultant

“Why should I train with weights?”

That question is uppermost in the mind of all new readers of a magazine such as Muscle Man, who, for some reason or another have obtained a copy.

Unless the question is answered intelligently, scientifically and adequately, the chances of the new reader being motivated to action are slight.

Both sides of the question should be fairly evaluated. To claim that weight training is a magic “cure all” capable of transforming a grotesque freak into a beach Adonis, or an incurable invalid into a robust individual, is ridiculous. Likewise, to minimize the many benefits of weight training due to an ill treated presentation, is an error. Only the truth, based on actual statistical fact can be wholely convincing. Such truth is now presented.

WHO CAN TRAIN WITH WEIGHTS? Members of both sexes and of any age group who are in normal good health can benefit from scientific weight training. To be wholey beneficial, there must be a desire on the part of the individual for physical improvement, plus an understanding of what that improvement can mean to him, or her, in success and happiness in life.

This means that the very young, under 10 years of age, are unlikely prospects as are the old, over 70. The first group has not matured sufficiently to comprehend the benefits of physical fitness and physical attractiveness. The second, has lived it’s life to a large extent and is unlikely to alter habits at an advanced age.

The 60 years between, however, can be, and usually are, used for constructive weight training. And—physical improvement can be realized during any of these 60 golden years.

WHO SHOULD NOT TRAIN WITH WEIGHTS? Anyone of any age who is suffering from heart disease, or who is under doctor’s care for a specific illness in which a part of the cure is complete rest, should not train with weights. Any one who is suffering from any physical weakness, such as hernia, varicose veins, spinal maladjustment, etc. .. should not train with weights. And anyone who is suffering from ANY chronic or acute medical condition, should not train with weights without first consulting a physician. Otherwise, those who are thin and weak, fat and flabby, husky and strong—male and female, can ALL train with weights and make definite improvement.

WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL BENEFITS? The physical benefits of weight training are many and varied. In fact, they can be likened to a chain reaction, which once started spreads rapidly and encompasses the entire human structure. These benefits include organic, muscular, emotional and moral. Inside and out, scientific weight training remolds the individual and better equips him for a full, wholesome, satisfying life.

One of the first reactions noticed by the Novice in weight training is a lessening of tension and mental unrest, so common today. Training with weights is a basic physical action in which basic physical equipment is utilized. The hands, the muscles, the limbs and the joints of the body are permitted freedom of expression which is gratifying and satisfying; a release from this machine age. Weight training is additionally a throwback to the primative, when the survival of the fittest prevailed. It is as natural as the dawn of civilization; a reestablishment of original concepts of life. Even one work out makes a m ale feel more manly and a woman more confident of her charms. A basic expression to satisfy the basic requirements of the body: – that sums up weight training well and explains why the sport will continue to grow in popularity with each passing day.

bodybuilder Vic Seipke with Jeanne Mc Corkle on miami beach
Vic Seipke displays physique and Jeanne Mc Corkle her charms with Miami seascape as background

With continued weight training, and as the physique strengthens and develops, this process of mental rest and peace of mind becomes accelerated. A lack of confidence, one of the major reasons for failure in life, is replaced by a feeling of true confidence. This true confidence is one which is accompanied by the knowledge that success requires work, study and application. The muscular structures of the body have demonstrated this truth by their improved appearance and capabilities. This knowledge is then translated into a similar formula by the individual and used to assure success in other interests.

While the mind is undergoing this reconstruction period, the organs are strengthening. The organs of our body are tied in directly the mind and the physical. Less tension means they can function more efficiently without being geared for emotional attack. Emotional unrest can interfere with the functioning of the digestive organs, the kidney, liver, heart, lungs, circulatory system. All this is dispensed with when a feeling of well being is cultivated. Sleep is sounder, there is less wasted energy and less fatigue; faster recuperation after physical exertion. The reflexes are sharpened— physical coordination is improved. These are but a few of the myriad of benefits the mere act of weight training initially induce.

Coincident, the muscles of the body are developing and strengthening. With a more capable muscular structure, the chain reaction continues. Muscles which have been lying dormant and little used for years, are now developed and cultivated. Many of these muscles work in assistive capacities and ease the burden of similar muscles in adjacent areas. This leads not only to a well developed physical appearance, but to a type of muscular economy heretofore unknown. Hard physical work now becomes easy. The physical impossibility, possible!

In weight training, poundages which were heavy a short time before, become light to handle. And as they become light to handle they are increased gradually. In a short time the heavier poundages feel light and the pattern continues indefinitely With each step up in physical capability there is an accompanying improvement in muscular size, appearance and condition until eventually the previously underdeveloped individual emerges as a man of muscles.

The benefits extend beyond the confines of lifting weights. These same, well coditioned muscles, are wholely adaptable to any type of physical expression. Given the required training, they rapidly adjust to baseball, football, swimming, tennis or any sport. And – because they are well trained and wholely efficient, the physical economy possible which permitted these muscles to lift heavier and heavier weights, makes them outstanding in sports.

As the muscles become larger, more shapely and efficient, additional physical benefits are noticed. With the removal of physical weakness, the circulatory and digestive systems are benefitted. Efficient muscles produce less waste residue as a result of physical exercise. This eases the burden on the blood stream, the liver, kidneys and skin, which must remove waste material from the body. The blood, with less waste material to contend with, is purer, filled more fully with nutrients and life giving oxygen with which to nourish, rebuild and strengthen the muscles and the organs of the body. The processes of digestion and assimilation are most efficient. Food eaten is digested more fully and greater benefit is derived as a result. A condition of greater organic and muscular health results. This in turn is reflected by a dramatic drop in susceptibility to disease up to the point of complete imunity to certain illnesses such as the common cold which the majority of well trained bodybuilders evidence over a period of years.

Morally, weight training often succeeds where lectures, punishment and even serious complications as a result of immoral act, fail. Those who train with weights and who have given freely of their sweat, energies and time to improve their physical selves, are unlikely to abuse what they have worked so hard to build. While weight training draws followers from all segments of citizens, and some due to a combination of circumstances may not represent everything we call ideal, on the overall picture, those who do train and who train seriously take a pride in themselves, their bodies, their morals and wholesome ambitions in life. It is unlikely that any other group of athletes, or devotees of any ‘ism’ can point to as slight an incidence of ‘failures’ among their active followers.

Not everyone who trains with weights will become a Mr. America or if a female, a Miss U.S.A. No one though, can predetermine who will fare second best when the novice takes that first work out.

To be an honored champion is a worthwhile goal. Hope should persist. Yet if fate decrees otherwise, nothing is lost. The mere fact that you have trained, that you have improved, that you have re-established a basic and necessary intimacy with yourself as a child of Nature, and have benefitted from the therapeutic activity of feeing physically A LIVE, will make you, You and YOU a better rounded, more successful individual than you would have been otherwise.

So forget the tinsel and the glamor of being a beach Adonis, a superman, a giant of power, a Mr. America. This can in all probability be yours. But the real reason why you, the novice who is reading a magazine on weight training for the first time should train, is because you benefit in every living cell of your body, in every mental and emotional impulse, in every interest in life.

If these reasons aren’t sufficient, then do not be mi sled. You DO NOT possess either the true desire nor the mental maturity to benefit from weights. You are not ready for the greatest journey of your life-—the one which will lead to strength, health, happiness and success. Better wait awhile longer until you do feel the TRUE urge. Then, and only then do we recommend that you send for, and use, that set of Muscle Sculpture weights.

From Muscle Men, Volume 1 Number 1

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